2017
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New Achievements in Fe3O4 Nanofluid Fully Developed Forced Convection Heat Transfer under the Effect of a Magnetic Field: An Experimental Study
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Fe3O4 nanofluid fully developed forced convection inside a copper tube is empirically investigated under the effect of a magnetic field. All of the investigations are performed under laminar flow regime (670≤Re≤1700) and thermal boundary conditions of the tube with uniform thermal flux. The tube is under the effect of a magnetic field in certain points. This research aims to study the effect of various parameters, namely use of nanofluid, nanoparticles volume percent, Reynolds number of the flow, constant magnetic field, and alternating magnetic field with various frequencies on flow behavior. To validate the experiment setup, distilled water is utilized as working fluid. The results are compared with Shah’s equation and acceptable agreements are achieved. The results suggest that owing to complex convectional flows developed in the fluid as a result of Fe3O4 nanoparticlesmagnetic field interaction, increased alternating frequency of the magnetic field and increased volume fraction lead to increase heat transfer to maximum value 4.62. As Reynolds number increases, the rate of the said increase is reduced and reached to 0.29. At a constant Reynolds number, increased frequency of the alternating magnetic field results in an increased local heat transfer coefficient. However, this increase is unproportional to increase in frequency. In high frequencies, increased frequency leads to a slight increase in the heat transfer coefficient.
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Mohammadhosein
Dibaei
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
mhdibaei@gmail.com


Hadi
Kargarsharifabad
Energy and Sustainable Development Research Center, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran
Energy and Sustainable Development Research
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
h.kargar@semnaniau.ac.ir
Ferrofluid
Nanoparticles
Convection
alternating magnetic field
Experimental Study
[ [1] Z. M. Zhang, Nano/microscale heat transfer: McGrawHill New York, 2007. ##[2] S. K. Das, S. U. Choi, W. Yu, T. Pradeep, Nanofluids: science and technology: WileyInterscience Hoboken, NJ, 2008. ##[3] Q. Li, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, Experimental investigations on transport properties of magnetic fluids, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 109116, 2005. ##[4] A. Gavili, F. Zabihi, T. D. Isfahani, J. Sabbaghzadeh, The thermal conductivity of water base ferrofluids under magnetic field, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 41, pp. 9498, 2012. ##[5] Q. Li, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features of nanofluids, Journal of Heat transfer, Vol. 125, pp. 151155, 2003. ##[6] J.Y. Jung, H.S. Oh, H.Y. Kwak, Forced convective heat transfer of nanofluids in microchannels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 466472, 2009. ##[7] K. Anoop, T. Sundararajan, S. K. Das, Effect of particle size on the convective heat transfer in nanofluid in the developing region, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 52, No. 9, pp. 21892195, 2009. ##[8] D. Wen, Y. Ding, Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of nanofluids at the entrance region under laminar flow conditions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 47, No. 24, pp. 51815188, 2004. ##[9] S. Rashidi, M. Bovand, J. A. Esfahani, G. Ahmadi, Discrete particle model for convective AL 2 O 3–water nanofluid around a triangular obstacle, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 100, pp. 3954, 2016. ##[10] S. Zeinali Heris, S. G. Etemad, M. Nasr Esfahany, Experimental investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 529535, 2006. ##[11] K. S. Hwang, S. P. Jang, S. U. Choi, Flow and convective heat transfer characteristics of waterbased Al< sub> 2</sub> O< sub> 3</sub> nanofluids in fully developed laminar flow regime, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 193199, 2009. ##[12] Y. Ding, H. Alias, D. Wen, R. A. Williams, Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNT nanofluids), International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 240250, 2006. ##[13] D. Kim, Y. Kwon, Y. Cho, C. Li, S. Cheong, Y. Hwang, J. Lee, D. Hong, S. Moon, Convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids under laminar and turbulent flow conditions, Current Applied Physics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. e119e123, 2009. ##[14] U. Rea, T. McKrell, L.w. Hu, J. Buongiorno, Laminar convective heat transfer and viscous pressure loss of alumina–water and zirconia–water nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 52, No. 7, pp. 20422048, 2009. ##[15] S. Tahir, M. Mital, Numerical investigation of laminar nanofluid developing flow and heat transfer in a circular channel, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 39, pp. 814, 2012. ##[16] S. Z. Shirejini, S. Rashidi, J. Esfahani, Recovery of drop in heat transfer rate for a rotating system by nanofluids, Journal of Molecular Liquids, Vol. 220, pp. 961969, 2016. ##[17] L. Syam Sundar, M. Naik, K. Sharma, M. Singh, T. C. Siva Reddy, Experimental investigation of forced convection heat transfer and friction factor in a tube with Fe< sub> 3</sub> O< sub> 4</sub> magnetic nanofluid, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 37, pp. 6571, 2012. ##[18] M. Bovand, S. Rashidi, J. Esfahani, Optimum Interaction Between Magnetohydrodynamics and Nanofluid for Thermal and Drag Management, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, pp. 112, 2016. ##[19] S. Rashidi, M. Bovand, J. Esfahani, Opposition of Magnetohydrodynamic and AL 2 O 3–water nanofluid flow around a vertex facing triangular obstacle, Journal of Molecular Liquids, Vol. 215, pp. 276284, 2016. ##[20] M. Ashouri, B. Ebrahimi, M. Shafii, M. Saidi, M. Saidi, Correlation for Nusselt number in pure magnetic convection ferrofluid flow in a square cavity by a numerical investigation, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 322, No. 22, pp. 36073613, 2010. ##[21] R. Ganguly, S. Sen, I. K. Puri, Heat transfer augmentation using a magnetic fluid under the influence of a line dipole, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 271, No. 1, pp. 6373, 2004. ##[22] A. Belyaev, B. Smorodin, Convection of a ferrofluid in an alternating magnetic field, Journal of applied mechanics and technical physics, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 558565, 2009. ##[23] Q. Li, Y. Xuan, Experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics of magnetic fluid flow around a fine wire under the influence of an external magnetic field, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 591596, 2009. ##[24] M. Lajvardi, J. MoghimiRad, I. Hadi, A. Gavili, T. Dallali Isfahani, F. Zabihi, J. Sabbaghzadeh, Experimental investigation for enhanced ferrofluid heat transfer under magnetic field effect, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 322, No. 21, pp. 35083513, 2010. ##[25] A. Ghofrani, M. Dibaei, A. Hakim Sima, M. Shafii, Experimental investigation on laminar forced convection heat transfer of ferrofluids under an alternating magnetic field, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2013. ##[26] H. Bagheri, O. Zandi, A. Aghakhani, Extraction of fluoxetine from aquatic and urine samples using sodium dodecyl sulfatecoated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles followed by spectrofluorimetric determination, Analytica chimica acta, Vol. 692, No. 1, pp. 8084, 2011. ##[27] S. Khalafalla, G. Reimers, Preparation of dilutionstable aqueous magnetic fluids, Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 178183, 1980. ##[28] L. Shen, P. E. Laibinis, T. A. Hatton, Bilayer Surfactant Stabilized Magnetic Fluids: Synthesis and Interactions at Interfaces, Langmuir, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 447453, 1999/01/01, 1998. ##[29] A. Bejan, A. D. Kraus, Heat transfer handbook: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. ##[30] E. R. Eckert, R. J. Goldstein, Measurements in heat transfer: Taylor & Francis, 1976. ##[31] S. J. Kline, F. McClintock, Describing uncertainties in singlesample experiments, Mechanical engineering, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 38, 1953. ##[32] R. Azizian, E. Doroodchi, T. McKrell, J. Buongiorno, L. Hu, B. Moghtaderi, Effect of magnetic field on laminar convective heat transfer of magnetite nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 68, pp. 94109, 2014. ##[33] J. Jolivet, R. Massart, J. Fruchart, Synthesis and physicochemical study of nonsurfactant magnetic colloids in an aqueousmedium, Nouveau Journal De ChimieNew Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 325331, 1983. ##[34] D. Wagh, A. Avashia, On the viscosity of a magnetic fluid, Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, Vol. 153, No. 3, pp. 359365, 1996. ##[35] H. Kargarsharifabad, M. Falsafi, Numerical Study of Ferrofluid Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Tube with Magnetic Field, Journal of Computational Method in Engineeering, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 1125, 2015. ##[36] H. Kargarsharifabad, M. Falsafi, Numerical modeling of internal convection heat transfer of magnetic fluid in the pulse magnetic field and different time frequencies, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 9198, 2015.##]
Experimental study of free convective heat transfer in a directionsensitive open cavity
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The aim of the present study was to propose a panel being sensitive to the direction of heat transfer. For this purpose, a vertical rectangular cavity with prescribed dimensions was prepared and filled with water as the working fluid. A vertical midplane solid partition was installed within the cavity. Two relatively wide openings were created at the top and bottom of the partition and they were so equipped to operate as a pair of oneway flow controllers. The cavity was then fixed between two thick aluminum blocks by which, the contact surfaces of the cavity were maintained at almost constant but different temperatures. Heat transfer rate through the cavity was evaluated for the same temperature difference applied in the two opposed directions. Based on the results, heat transfer rate in one direction was about 30% higher than that of the reverse direction. The difference in the heat transfer rate was obviously due to the individual flow patterns developed within the modified cavity. As a result, the proposed cavity is capable of restricting heat transfer rate in one direction compared to the other, when applying the same temperature difference across the cavity.
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Mostafa
Rahimi
Academic staff in University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Academic staff in University of Mohaghegh
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
rahimi@uma.ac.ir
Free convection
directionsensitive heat transfer
vertical cavity
[[1]. J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, 10th ed., McGrawHill, (2009). ##[2]. H. Singh, P. Eames, A review of natural convective heat transfer correlations in rectangular crosssection cavities and their potential applications to compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar collector cavities, Applied Thermal Engineering, 31, 2186 2196, (2011). ##[3]. H.F. Öztop, P. Estellé, M. Yan, K. AlSalem, J. Orfi, O. Mahian, A brief review of natural convection in enclosures under localized heating with and without nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 60, 3744, (2015). ##[4]. A. Baïri, E. ZarcoPernia and J.M. García de María, A review on natural convection in enclosures for engineering applications.; The particular case of the parallelogrammic diode cavity, Applied thermal Engineering, 63, 304322, (2014). ##[5]. Z. Zhang, A. Bejan and J.L. Lage, Natural convection in a vertical enclosure with internal permeable screen, Journal of Heat Transfer, 113, 377383, (1991). ##[6]. T. Avedissian, D. Naylor, Free convective heat transfer in an enclosure with an internal louvered blind, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51, 283293, (2008). ##[7]. A.J.N. Khalifa and A.F. Khudheyer, Natural convection in partitioned enclosures: experimental study on 14 different configurations, Energy Conversion and Management, 42, 653661, (2001). ##[8]. S.H. Tasnim and M.R. Collins, Suppressing natural convection in a differentially heated square cavity with an arc shaped baffle, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 32, 94106, (2005). ##[9]. M.A. Coman, G.O. Hughes, R.C. Kerr, R.W. Griffiths, The effect of a barrier on laminar convection in a box with differentially heated end walls, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49, 2903291, (2006). ##[10]. E. Rezaei, A. Karami, T. Yousefi and S. Mahmoudinezhad, Modeling the free convection heat transfer in a partitioned cavity using ANFIS, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 39, 470475, (2012). ##[11]. E. Garoosi, L. Jahanshahloo, M.M. Rashidi, A. Badakhsh, M.E. Ali, Numerical simulation of natural convection of the nanofluid in heat exchangers using a Buongiorno model, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 254, 183203, (2015). ##[12]. M. Ebrahimi, M.B. Shafii, M.A. Bijarchi, Experimental investigation of the thermal management of flatplate closedloop pulsating heat pipes with interconnecting channels, 90, 838847, (2015). ##[13]. D. Ernst, J.E. Toth, Unidrectional Heat Pipe, US4683940 A, (1987). ##[14]. P. Philip and L. Fagbenle, Design of Lee’s disc electrical method for determining thermal conductivity of a poor conductor in the form of a flat disc, International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 9, 335343, (2014). ##[15]. S.W. Churchill, H.H.S. Chu, Correlating equations for laminar and turbulent free convection from a vertical plate, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 18, 1323–1329, (1975). ##[16]. S.J. Kline and F.A. McClintock, Describing uncertainties in single sample experiments, Mechanical Engineering, 75, 3–8, (1953). ##]
Analysis of heat transfer in the pyrolysis of differently shaped biomass particles subjected to different boundary conditions: integral transform methods
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The conversion and utilization of biomass as an alternative source of energy have been subjects of interest in various countries, but technical barriers to the technology and design of conversion plants have considerably impeded the development and use of alternative power sources. Theoretical studies on the conversion process enhance our understanding of the thermochemical conversion of solid fuels. Carrying out such research necessitates the development of thermal and kinetic models of pyrolysis, on which the conversion process integrally depends. Another requirement is to analytically solve the aforementioned models to derive valuable insight into the actual process of biomass conversion. Accordingly, this study used Laplace and Hankel transforms to obtain analytical solutions to heat transfer models of rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical biomass particles. Pyrolysis kinetic models were also analytically solved using the Laplace transform. The study then investigated the effects of particle shape, particle size, isothermal and nonisothermal heating conditions, and convective and radiative heat transfer (calculated using a modified Biot number) on the pyrolysis of a biomass particle. This work is expected to substantially contribute to the design of pyrolysis reactors/units and the optimal design of biomass gasifiers.
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Gbeminiyi
Sobamowo
University of Lagos
University of Lagos
Nigeria
mikegbeminiyi@gmail.com


Sunday
Ojolo
University of Lagos
University of Lagos
Nigeria
ojolosunday@yahoo.com


Chalse
Osheku
University of Lagos
University of Lagos
Nigeria
charles.osheku@cstp.nasrda.gov.ng


A.
Kehinde
University of Lagos
University of Lagos
Nigeria
akehinde@unilag.edu.ng
Energy
Biomass particles
Pyrolysis
Heat transfer
Integral transform method
Analytical solutions
[D. L. Pyle, C. A. Zaror. Heat transfer and kinetics in the low temperature pyrolysis of solids. Chemical Engineering Science 39(1984.), 147–158. ##[2] C. H. Bamford, J. Crank, D. H. Malan. The combustion of wood. Part I. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 42(1946)., 166–182. ##[3] A. F. Roberts, G. Clough. Thermal degradation of wood in an inert atmosphere. In: Proceedings of the ninth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh,. 1963. 158–167. ##[4] W. D. Weatherford and D. M. Sheppard, 10th int. Symposium on Combustion, the Combustion Institute, Pitts., (1965), 897 ##[5] E. R. Tinney, The combustion of wood dowels in heated air. In: Proceedings of the 10th Symposium (International) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, .1965. 925–930 ##[6] T. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara and J. Kondo, 12th int. Symposium on combustion, the combustion institute, pitts., (1969),.515. ##[7] A. F. Roberts. 13th Int. Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pitts. , (1971). 893. ##[8] H. C. Kung. A mathematical model of wood pyrolysis. Combustion and Flame 18(1972)., 185–195. ##[9] P. S. Maa, and R. C. Bailie. Combustion Science and Technology, 7(1973), 257. ##[10] E. J. Kansa, H. E. Perlee and R. F. Chaiken, R. Mathematical model of wood pyrolysis including internal forced convection. Combustion and Flame 29(1977), 311–324. ##[11] W. R. Chan, M. Kelbon and B. B. Krieger, Modeling and experimental verification of physical and chemical processes during pyrolysis of large biomass particle. Fuel 64(1985.), 1505–1513. ##[12] C. A. Koufopanos, N. Papayannakos, G. Maschio and A. Lucchesi. Modelling of the pyrolysis of biomass particles. Studies on kinetics, thermal andheat transfer e4ects. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 69(1991.), 907–915. ##[13] C. K. Lee, R. F. Chaiken, J. M. Singer. Charring pyrolysis of wood in 0res by laser simulation. In: Proceedings of the 16th Symposium (International) on Combustion. The Combustion Institute: Pittsburgh,. 1976, 1459–1470. ##[14] K. Miyanami, L. S. Fan,L. T. Fan and W. P. Walawender. A mathematical model for pyrolysis of a solid particle—effects of the heat of reaction. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 55(1977)., 317–325. ##[15] L. T. Fan, L. S. Fan,K. Miyanami,, T. Y. Chen, and W. P. Walawender. A mathematical model for pyrolysis of a solid particle—effects of the Lewis number. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 55(1977)., 47–53. ##[16] G. M. Simmons and M. Gentry. Particle size limitations due to heat transfer in determining pyrolysis kinetics of biomass. J. Anal. and Appl. Pyrolysis, 10(1986),117127. ##[17] J. Villermaux,B. Antoine., J. Lede, F. Soulignac. A new model for thermal volatilization of solid particles undergoing fast pyrolysis. Chemical Engineering Science 41(1986),, 151–157. ##[18] C. Di Blasi. Analysis of convection and secondary reaction effects within porous solid fuels undergoing pyrolysis. Combustion Science and Technology 90(1993),, 315–340. ##[19] M. C. Melaaen. and M. G. Gronli.. Modeling and simulation of moist wood drying and pyrolysis. In: Bridgwater, A.V., Boocock, D.B.G. (Eds.), Developments in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion. Blackie, London, 1997, 132–146. ##[20] R. K. Jalan and V. K. Srivastava.. Studies on pyrolysis of a single biomass cylindrical pellet–kinetic and heat transfer effects. Energy Conversion and Management 40 (1999),, 467–494. ##[21] M. R. Ravi, A. Jhalani., S. Sinha andA. Ray. “Development of a semiempirical model for pyrolysis of an annular sawdust bed”. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 71(2004): 353374. ##[22] B. V. Babu and A. S. Chaurasia. Modeling for pyrolysis of solid particle: kinetics and heat transfer effects. Energy Conversion and Management 44(2003), 2251–2275. ##[23] P. N. Sheth and B. V. Babu. Kinetic Modeling of the Pyrolysis of Biomass National Conference on Environmental Conservation, Pilani, India; 2006, 453458. ##[24] Y. B. Yang, A. N. Phan, C. Ryu, V. Sharifi. andJ. Swithenbank, Mathematical modelling of slow pyrolysis of segregated solid wastes in a packedbed pyrolyser Elsevier Journal of fuel.2006. ##[25] C. Mandl, I. Obernberger and F. Biedermann.Updraft fixedbed gasification of softwood pellets: mathematical modelling and comparison with experimental data In: proceedings of the 17, European Biomass Conference & Exhibition Hamburg, Italy, 2009. ##[26] P. Weerachanchai, C. Tangsathitkulchai and M. Tangsathitkulchai. Comparison of Pyrolysis Kinetic Model for Thermogravimetric analysis of Biomass. Suranree Journal of Tecnologies 17(4) (2010), 387400. ##[27] K. Slopiecka, P. Bartocci and F. Fantozzi. Thermogravimetric analysis and Kinetic study of poplar wood pyrolysis, 3rd International Conference on Applied Energy, Perugia, Italy; 2011, 16871698. ##[28] C. A. Zaror “Studies of the pyrolysis of wood at low temperatures”. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Lordon, 1982 ##[29] S. J. Ojolo, C. A. Osheku and M. G. Sobamow. Analytical Investigations of Kinetic and Heat Transfer in Slow Pyrolysis of a Biomass Particle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development 2 (2) 2013: 105115 ##[30] M. Bidabadi, S. A. Mostafavi, F. F. Dizaji, B. H. Dizaji. An analytical model for flame propagation through moist lycopodium particles with nonunity Lewis number [J]. International Journal of Engineering, 27(5), 2014, 793−802. ##[31] B. H. Dizaji, M. Bidabadi. Analytical study about the kinetics of different processes in pyrolysis of lycopodium dust [J]. Journal of Fuel and Combustion, 2014, 6(2): 13−20. (in Persian) ##[32] J. Lédé, and O. Authier. Temperature and heating rate of solid particles undergoing a thermal decomposition. Which criteria for characterizing fast pyrolysisJournal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 113 (2015)1–14 ##[33] R. Font., A. Marcilla., E. Verdu and J. Devesa,, Kinetics of the pyrolysis of almond shells and almond shells impregnated with COCl2 in a Fluidized bed reactor and in a Pyroprobe 100. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 29 (1990)., 1846–1855. ##[34] F. Shafizadeh and P. P. S.Chin. Thermal deterioration of wood. ACS Symposium Series 43(1977), 57–81. ##[35] F. Thurner andU. Mann. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis. Industrial andEngineering Chemical Process Design and Development 20(1981), 482–488. ##[36] A. M. C. Janse, A. M. C Westerhout and W. Prins. “Modelling of flash pyrolysis of a single wood particle”. Chemical Engineering and Processing, 39(2000), 239252. ##[37] V. K. Srivastava, Sushil and R. K Jalan. Prediction of Concentration in the Pyrolysis of Biomass MaterialsII. Energy Conversion and Management 37(4) (1996), 473483. ##[38] C. K. Liden, F. Berruti., D. S. Scott. “A kinetic model for the production of liquids from the flash pyrolysis of biomass”. Chem. Eng.Commun. 65(1988), 207–221. ##[39] N. Prakash and T. Karunanithi. “Kinetic Modelling in Biomass pyrolysis – a review”. Journal of applied sciences research, 4(12) (2008), 16271636. ##[40] C. Branca and C. Di Blasi . Kinetics of the isothermal degradation of wood in the temperature range, 528708 K. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 67(2003), 207219. ##[41] J. P. Holman. “Heat transfer” Sixth Edition, McGrawHill Book Company, (1986) ##]
Numerical simulation of transient natural gas flow in pipelines using high order DGADER scheme
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To increase the numerical accuracy in solving engineering problems, either conventional methods on a fine grid or methods with a high order of accuracy on a coarse grid can be used. In the present research, the second approach is utilized and the arbitrary high order Discontinues Galerkin Arbitrary DERivative (DGADER) method is applied to analyze the transient isothermal flow of natural gas through pipelines. The problem is investigated one dimensionally and the effect of friction force between the pipe wall and fluid flow is considered as a source term on the righthand side of the momentum equation. Therefore, the governing equations have a hyperbolic nature. Two real problems with available field data are simulated using this method. The results show that using DGADER method, high accurate results can be obtained even on a coarse grid. Furthermore, the conventional smallamplitude oscillations of DGADER scheme do not appear in the transient natural gas flow problems, due to the smoothness of flow field properties.
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Ali
Falavand Jozaei
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahvaz
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
falavand78@yahoo.com


Ali
Tayebi
Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.
Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
tayebi@yu.ac.ir


Younes
Shekari
Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.
Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
shekari@yu.ac.ir


Ashkan
Ghafouri
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahvaz
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
a.ghafouri@iauahvaz.ac.ir
transient natural gas flow
Numerical simulation
high order DGADER scheme
isothermal flow
[[1]. Zhou, J., Adewumi, M., 1995, “Simulation of transient flow in natural gas pipelines”. 27th Annual Meeting Pipeline Simulation Interest Group (PSIG). ##[2]. Osiadacz, A.J., 1996 “Different Transient Flow ModelsLimitations, Advantages, And Disadvantages”, PSIG Annual Meeting, Pipeline Simulation Interest Group. ##[3]. Ibraheem, S., Adewumi, M., 1996, “Higher resolution numerical solution for 2D transient natural gas pipeline flows”, SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers. ##[4]. Mohitpour, M., Thompson, W., Asante, B., 1996, “The importance of dynamic simulation on the design and optimization of pipeline transmission systems.” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY (United States). ##[5]. Tao, W., Ti, H., 1998, “Transient analysis of gas pipeline network.” Chemical Engineering Journal, 69(1): pp. 4752. ##[6]. BehbahaniNejad, M., Bagheri, A., 2010, “The accuracy and efficiency of a MATLABSimulink library for transient flow simulation of gas pipelines and networks” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 70(3): pp. 256265. ##[7]. BehbahaniNejad, M, Shekari, Y., 2010, The accuracy and efficiency of a reducedorder model for transient flow analysis in gas pipelines. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 73(1–2): pp. 1319. ##[8]. Godunov, S.K., 1959, “Finite difference methods for the computation of discontinuous solutions of the equations of fluid dynamics”. Mathematics of the USSR, 47: pp. 271–306. ##[9]. Toro, E.F., 2005, Riemann Solvers and Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics, 3rd ed.,: Springer, Manchester. ##[10]. Titarev, V., Toro, E.F., 2002, “ADER: Arbitrary high order Godunov approach” Journal of Scientific Computing, 17(14): pp. 609618. ##[11]. Titarev, V., Toro, E.F., 2005, “ADER schemes for threedimensional nonlinear hyperbolic systems”, Journal of Computational Physics, 204(2): pp. 715736. ##[12]. Dumbser, M., Balsara, D. S., Toro, E.F., Munz, C.D., 2008, “A unified framework for the construction of onestep finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin schemes on unstructured meshes”. Journal of Computational Physics, 227: pp. 82098253. ##[13]. Dumbser, M., Enaux, C. and Toro, E.F., 2008, “Finite volume schemes of very high order of accuracy for stiff hyperbolic balance laws”, Journal of Computational Physics, 227: pp. 39714001. ##[14]. Dumbser, M., Hidalgo, A., Castro, M., Pares, C., Toro, E.F., 2010, “FORCE schemes on unstructured meshes part II: Nonconservative hyperbolic systems”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 199(9): pp. 625647. ##[15]. Dumbser, M., Kaser, M., Titarev, V., Toro, E.F., 2007, “Quadraturefree nonoscillatory finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes for nonlinear hyperbolic systems”, Journal of Computational Physics, 226: pp. 204243. ##[16]. Taube, Dumbser, M., Balsara, D. S., Munz, C.D., “Arbitrary highorder discontinuous Galerkin schemes for the magnetohydrodynamic equations”, Journal of Scientific Computing, 30(3): pp. 441464. ##[17]. Shekari, Y. Tayebi, A., 2015, “Numerical simulation of twophase flows, using drift flux model and DGADER scheme” Modares Mechanical Engineering, 15(9): p. 5158. ##[18]. Dumbser, M., 2011, “Advanced Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations and Applications” 2011: Trento. ##[19]. Dempsey, R.J., Rachford, H.H., Nolen, J.S., 1972, “Gas Supply AnalysisStates of the Arts”, AGA Conf. San Francisco. ##[20]. Taylor, T. D., Wood, N. E. and Power, J. E., 1962, "A Computer Simulation of Gas Flow in Long Pipelines," Soc. Pet. Eng, Trans, AIME, vol. 225, pp. 297302 ##[21]. Zhou, J. and Adewumi, M., 1995, "Simulation of transient flow in natural gas pipelines," in 27th Annual Meeting Pipeline Simulation Interest Group (PSIG), pp. 1820 ##[22]. Tentis, E., Margaris, D., and Papanikas, D., 2003, "Transient gas flow simulation using an adaptive method of lines," Comptes Rendus Mecanique, vol. 331, pp. 481487 ##]
Heat Transfer under Double Turbulent Pulsating Jets Impinging on a Flat Surface
2
2
In this study, the numerical analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer of double pulsating impinging jets on a flat surface has been investigated. The unsteady twodimensional numerical solution for two similar and dissimilar jets was performed using the RNG kε model. The results showed that the RNG kε model has more satisfactory predictions of the Nusselt number distribution. Comparisons show that for two identical jets with constant frequency and amplitude, increasing Reynolds number leads to the considerable increase of timeaveraged Nusselt number. Also, with increasing oscillation amplitude, the averaged Nusselt number of surface increased. The results show that increasing the phase difference angle of pulsating jets leads to the increase of mixing between jets, which consequences the increase of Nusselt number in this zone. It should be mentioned that for two jets by equal frequency and phase angle, increasing oscillating amplitude of one jet leads to an asymmetric distribution of the Nusselt number. In this case, the averaged Nusselt number between two jets increased. Furthermore, the array of double jets with different oscillating type (intermittent and sinusoidal) leads to the increase of averaged Nusselt number considerably in the stagnation region between the jets.
1

45
52


Morteza
Ataei
Semnan University
Semnan University
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
morteza_ataei65@yahoo.com


Reza
Tarighi
Semnan University
Semnan University
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
tarighireza@yahoo.com


Ali
Hajimohammadi
Semnan University
Semnan University
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
ali.hajimohammadi@gmail.com


Mehran
Rajabi zargarabadi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
rajabi@semnan.ac.ir
Turbulent flow
Impingement Heat Transfer
Pulsating jet
Average Nusselt Number
[D. A. Zumbrunnen, M. Balasubramanian, “Convective heat transfer enhancement due to gas injection into an impinging liquid jet”, Journal of Heat Transfer, 117 (4) (1995) 1011–1017. ##[2]. D. J. Sailor, D. J. Rohli, Q. L. Fu, “Effect of variable duty cycle flow pulsations on heat transfer enhancement for an impinging air jet”, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 20 (6) (1999) 574–580. ##[3]. H. S. Sheriff, D. A. Zumbrunnen, “Effect of flow pulsations on the cooling effective ness of an impinging jet”, Journal of Heat Transfer, 116 (4) (1994) 886–895. ## [4]. D. A. Zumbrunnen, M. Aziz, “Convective heat transfer enhancement due to intermittency in an impinging jet”, Journal of Heat Transfer, 115 (1) (1993) 91–98. ##[5]. D. A. Zumbrunnen, M. Balasubramanian, “Convective heat transfer enhancement due to gas injection into an impinging liquid jet”, Journal of Heat Transfer, 117 (4) (1995) 1011–1017. ##[6]. S. Marzouk, “Numerical study of momentum and heat transfer in a pulsed plane laminar jet”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 46 (22) (2003) 4319–4334. ##[7]. Hee Joo Poh, Kurichi Kumar, A. S. Mujumdar, “Heat transfer from a pulsed laminar impinging jet”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 32 (10) (2005) 1317–1324. ##[8]. Kamaruzzaman Sopian, “Comparison of Local Nusselt Number between Steady and Pulsating Jet at Different Jet Reynolds Number”, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ENVIRONMENT and DEVELOPMENT, 5 (5) (2009) 384 393. ##[9]. Rozli Zulkifli, “Comparison of Local Nusselt Number for Steady and Pulsating Circular Jet at Reynolds Number of 16000” , European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450216X, 29 (3) (2009) 369378. ##[10]. Peng Xu, “Turbulent impinging jet heat transfer enhancement due to intermittent pulsation”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 49 (7) (2010) 12471252. ##[11]. Peng Xu, Shuxia Qiu, Mingzhou Yu, Xianwu Qiao, A. S. Mujumdar “A study on the heat and mass transfer properties of multiple pulsating impinging jets”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 39 (3) (2012) 378–382. ## [12]. P. Xu, A.S. Mujumdar, H.J. Poh, B.M. Yu, “ Heat transfer under a pulsed slot turbulent impinging jet at large temperature differences”, Thermal Science, 14 (1) (2010) 271–281. ##[13]. P. Xu, B. M. Yu, S. X. Qiu, H. J. Poh, A.S. Mujumdar, “Turbulent impinging jet heat transfer enhancement due to intermittent pulsation”, International Journal of Thermal Science, 49 (7) (2010) 1247–1252. ##[14]. J. W. Zhou, Y. G. Wang, G. Middelberg, H. Herwig, “Unsteady jet impingement: heat transfer on smooth and nonsmooth surfaces”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 36 (2) (2009) 103–110. ##[15]. Javad. Mohammadpour, Mohammad mehdi Zolfagharian, A. S.Mujumdar, Mehran Rajabi Zargarabadi “Heat transfer under composite arrangement of pulsed and steady turbulent submerged multiple jets impinging on a flat surface” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 86 (2014) 139147. ##[16]. Javad Mohammadpour, Mehran Rajabi Zargarabadi, A. S.Mujumdar, Hadi Ahmadi “ Effect of intermittent and sinusoidal pulsed flows on impingement heat transfer from a concave surface” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 76 (2014) 118127. ##[17]. V. Yakhot, S. A. Orszga, S. Thangam, C. G. Speziale, “Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique”, Fluid Dynamic, 4 (7) (1992). ##[18]. E. C. Mladin, D. A. Zumbrunnen, “Alterations to coherent flow structures and heat transfer due to pulsations in an impinging airjet”, International Journal of Thermal Science, 39 (2) (2000) 236–248. ##]
Temperature proﬁle of a powerlaw ﬂuid over a moving wall with arbitrary injection/suction and internal heat generation/absorption
2
2
The heat transfer for a nonNewtonian powerlaw fluid over a moving surface is investigated by applying a uniform suction/injection velocity proﬁle. The ﬂow is inﬂuenced by internal heat generation/absorption. The energy equation is solved at constant surface temperature condition. The MerkChao series is applied to obtain a set of ODEs instead of a complicated PDE. The converted ordinary differential equations are solved numerically, adopting the fourth order Runge–Kutta method coupled with the shooting technique. The effects of the fluid type, suction/injection and heat source/sink parameters on heattransfer are discussed. It is observed that thermal boundary layers for pseudo plastic fluids are thicker than that of the dilatants. There exists a direct relation between dimensionless temperature and the injection parameter or the heat generation parameter rise. Injection of a ﬂuid to the surface generates more flow penetration into the fluid, which causes an increase in the thermal boundary layer and the temperature.
1

53
64


Hamideh
Radnia
university of isfahan
university of isfahan
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
hamide.radnia@gmail.com


Ali Reza
Solaimany Nazar
University of Isfahan
University of Isfahan
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
asolaimany@eng.ui.ac.ir
Heat transfer
Moving wall, MerckChao
Powerlaw
[[1]. L. Deswita, A. Ishak, R. Nazar, "PowerLaw Fluid Flow on a Moving Wall with Suction and Injection Effects", Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4 (8), (2010) pp. 22506. ##[2]. R. Cortell, "Suction, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation Effects on the Flow and Heat Transfer of a PowerLaw Fluid Past an Infinite Porous Plate", Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 89 (1), (2011) pp. 8593. ##[3]. W. Schowalter, "The Application of BoundaryLayer Theory to PowerLaw Pseudoplastic Fluids: Similar Solutions", AIChE Journal, 6 (1), (1960) pp. 248. ##[4]. E.M. AboEldahab , M.A. El Aziz, "Blowing/Suction Effect on Hydromagnetic Heat Transfer by Mixed Convection from an Inclined Continuously Stretching Surface with Internal Heat Generation/Absorption", International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 43 (7), (2004) pp. 70919. ##[5]. M.A. Mahmoud, "Slip Velocity Effect on a NonNewtonian PowerLaw Fluid over a Moving Permeable Surface with Heat Generation", Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 54 (5), (2011) pp. 122837. ##[6]. ##M. Seddeek, "FiniteElement Method for the Effects of Chemical Reaction, Variable Viscosity, Thermophoresis and Heat Generation/Absorption on a BoundaryLayer Hydromagnetic Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer over a Heat Surface", Acta Mechanica, 177 (14), (2005) pp. 118. ##[7]. M.S. Abel, P. Siddheshwar, M.M. Nandeppanavar, "Heat Transfer in a Viscoelastic Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and NonUniform Heat Source", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 50 (5), (2007) pp. 9606. ##[8]. R. Cortell, "Flow and Heat Transfer of a Fluid through a Porous Medium over a Stretching Surface with Internal Heat Generation/Absorption and Suction/Blowing", Fluid Dynamics Research, 37 (4), (2005) pp. 23145. ##[9]. F. Lin , S. Chern, "Laminar BoundaryLayer Flow of NonNewtonian Fluid", International journal of heat and mass transfer, 22 (10), (1979) pp. 13239. ##[10]. H. Kim, D. Jeng, K. DeWitt, "Momentum and Heat Transfer in PowerLaw Fluid Flow over TwoDimensional or Axisymmetrical Bodies", International journal of heat and mass transfer, 26 (2), (1983) pp. 24559. ##[11]. C. TienChen Allen, D.R. Jeng, K.J. DeWitt, "Natural Convection to PowerLaw Fluids from TwoDimensional or Axisymmetric Bodies of Arbitrary Contour", International journal of heat and mass transfer, 31 (3), (1988) pp. 61524. ##[12]. A. Sahu, M. Mathur, P. Chaturani, S.S. Bharatiya, "Momentum and Heat Transfer from a Continuous Moving Surface to a PowerLaw Fluid", Acta Mechanica, 142 (14), (2000) pp. 11931. ##[13]. J. Rao, D. Jeng, K.D. Witt, "Momentum and Heat Transfer in a PowerLaw Fluid with Arbitrary Injection/Suction at a Moving Wall", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 42 (15), (1999) pp. 283747. ##[14]. H. Shokouhmand , M. Soleimani, "The Effect of Viscous Dissipation on Temperature Profile of a PowerLaw Fluid Flow over a Moving Surface with Arbitrary Injection/Suction", Energy Conversion and Management, 52 (1), (2011) pp. 1719. ##[15]. A. Falana , R.O. Fagbenle, "Forced Convection Thermal Boundary Layer Transfer for NonIsothermal Surfaces Using the Modified Merk Series", Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 4 (02), (2014) pp. 241. ##[16]. ##A. Tamayol, K. Hooman, M. Bahrami, "Thermal Analysis of Flow in a Porous Medium over a Permeable Stretching Wall", Transport in Porous Media, 85 (3), (2010) pp. 66176. ##[17]. G. Layek, S. Mukhopadhyay, S.A. Samad, "Heat and Mass Transfer Analysis for Boundary Layer StagnationPoint Flow Towards a Heated Porous Stretching Sheet with Heat Absorption/Generation and Suction/Blowing", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 34 (3), (2007) pp. 34756. ##[18]. C.H. Chen, "Effects of Magnetic Field and Suction/Injection on Convection Heat Transfer of NonNewtonian PowerLaw Fluids Past a PowerLaw Stretched Sheet with Surface Heat Flux", International journal of thermal sciences, 47 (7), (2008) pp. 95461. ##[19]. E.M. AboEldahab, M.A. ElAziz, A.M. Salem, K.K. Jaber, "Hall Current Effect on Mhd Mixed Convection Flow from an Inclined Continuously Stretching Surface with Blowing/Suction and Internal Heat Generation/Absorption", Applied Mathematical Modelling, 31 (9), (2007) pp. 182946. ##[20]. M.A. Mahmoud , A.M. Megahed, "NonUniform Heat Generation Effect on Heat Transfer of a NonNewtonian PowerLaw Fluid over a NonLinearly Stretching Sheet", Meccanica, 47 (5), (2012) pp. 11319.##]
Analysis of Gasketedplate Heat Exchanger Performance Using Nanofluid
2
2
A heat exchanger using nanofluid needs to operate at optimum mass concentration level to get the maximum heat transfer performance. A numerical analysis is performed on the heat transfer and pressure drop of waterbased γAl2O3 nanofluid gasketedplate heat exchanger to specify its optimum conditions. Cold water will be heated by γAl2O3/water nanofluid. The results showed that optimal volume concentration of γAl2O3/water nanofluid based on a maximum performance index is about 0.016. The heat transfer rate at the optimal concentration of nanofluid is approximately 12.3% higher than that of pure water (base fluid), while pumping power is increased by 1.15%. With regard to 1% enhancement in heat transfer rate with increasing ϕ values from ϕ=0.016 to ϕ=0.028 (optimum volume concentration for maximum heat transfer rate) and the pumping power required for nanofluid, the optimum concentration for maximum performance index is selected as the best level of particle volume fraction for γAl2O3/water nanofluid in this research.
1

65
72


Navid
Bozorgan
Islamic Azad University of Abadan
Islamic Azad University of Abadan
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
n.bozorgan@gmail.com


Maryam
Shafahi
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, USA
California State Polytechnic University,
United States
maryam.shafahi@email.ucr.edu
Nanofluid
Particle volume fraction
Gasketedplate heat exchanger
Heat transfer
Pressure drop
[N. Bozorgan, M. Mafi, N. Bozorgan, Performance Evaluation of Al2O3/water Nanofluid as Coolant in a Doubletube Heat Exchanger Flowing under a Turbulent Flow Regime,Advances in Mechanical Engineering (2012) Article ID 891382 8 pages. ##[2] N. Bozorgan, K. Krishnakumar, N. Bozorgan, Numerical Study on Application of CuOwater Nanofluid in Automotive Diesel Engine Radiator, Modern Mechanical Engineering 2 (2012) 130136. ##[3] N. Bozorgan and M. Shafahi, Performance Evaluation of Nanofluids in Solar Energy: A Review of the Recent Literature, Micro and Nano Systems Letters (2015) 3:5. ##[4] E. Ollivier, J. Bellettre, M. Tazerout and G. C. Roy, Detection of Knock Occurrence in a Gas SI Engine from a Heat Transfer Analysis, Energy Conversion and Management 47 (2006) 879893. ##[5] M.A. Khairul, M.A. Alim, I.M. Mahbubul, R. Saidur, A. Hepbasli, A. Hossain, Heat transfer performance and exergy analyses of a corrugated plate heat, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2014) 814. ##[6] A. Zamzamian, S. Nasseri Oskouie, A. Doosthoseini, A. Joneidi and M. Pazouki, Experimental investigation of forced convective heat transfer coefficient in nanofluids of Al2O3/EG and CuO/EG in a double pipe and plate heat exchangers under turbulent flow,Experimental Thermal Fluid Science 35 (2011) 495502. ##[7] S.D. Pandey, V. Nema, Experimental analysis of heat transfer and friction factor of nanofluid as a coolant in a corrugated plate heat exchanger, Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 38 (2012) 248256. ##[8] M.N. Pantzali, A.A. Mouza and S.V. Paras, Investigating the efficacy of nanofluids as coolants in plate heat exchangers (PHE), Chemical Engineering Science 64 (2009) 32903300. ##[9] Y. H. Kwon, D. Kim, C. G. Li, J. K. Lee, D. S. Hong, Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Nanofluids in a Plate Heat Exchanger, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology11 (2011) 5769–5774. ##[10] M. Haghshenasfard, M. R. Talaie, S. nasr, Numerical and experimental investigation of heat transfer of ZnO/water nanofluid in the concentric tube and plate heat exchangers, Thermal Science 15 (2011) 183194. ##[11] B.C. Pak, Y.I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles, Experimental Heat transfer 11 (1998) 151170. ##[12] Y. Xuan, W. Roetzel, Conceptions of heat transfer correlation of nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 43 (2000) 37013707. ##[13] M. Corcione, Empirical correlating equations for predicting the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids, Energy Conversion Management 52 (2011) 789793. ##[14] Hongtan Liu S. K., “Heat Exchangers Selection, Rating, and Thermal Design”, Boca Raton London New York Washington, D. C. (2002). ##[15] Q. Li, Y. Xuan, Convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of Cu–water nanofluid, Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 45 (2002) 408416. ##[16] R. S. Vajjha, D. K. Das, D. P. Kulkarni, Development of new correlations for convective heat transfer and friction factor in turbulent regime for nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 46074618. ##[17] E. Cao, Heat transfer in process engineering, New York: McGrawHill, 2010. ##[18] M.H. Esfe, S. Saedodin, M. Mahmoodi, Experimental studies on the convective heat transfer performance and thermophysical properties of MgOwater nanofluid under turbulent flow, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 52 (2014) 6878. ##[19] C.S. Jwo, L.Y. Jeng, T.P. Teng, C.C. Chen, Performance of overall heat transfer in multichannel heat exchanger by alumina nanofluid, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 504 (2010) S385S388. ##[20] D. Lelea, The performance evaluation of Al2O3/water nanofluid flow and heat transfer in microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 38913899. ##[21] C.S. Jwo, L.Y. Jeng, T.P. Teng, C.C. Chen, Performance of overall heat transfer in multichannel heat exchanger by alumina nanofluid, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 504 (2010) S385S388. ##[22] A.K. Tiwari, P. Ghosh, J. Sarkar, Performance comparison of the plate heat exchanger using different nanofluids, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 49 (2013) 141151. ##[23] A.K. Tiwari, P. Ghosh, J. Sarkar, Particle concentration levels of various nanofluids in plate heat exchanger for best performance, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 89 (2015) 11101118.##]