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Separation of methacrylic acid from aqueous phase using quaternary amine
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2
The feasibility of extractive reaction of methacrylic acid from aqueous solution using a quaternary amine, tri–octyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMAC) as an extractant, was studied. The diluents chosen in the present work belong to different chemical classes, n–butyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, isoamyl alcohol, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene. The effect of initial acid concentration in the aqueous phase, and initial extractant concentration in the organic phase were studied. The performances of physical and reactive extraction of individual diluents were reported in terms of overall distribution coefficient, overall loading ratios, and stoichiometric loading ratios. Maximum extractability was observed in case of methyl isobutyl ketone, while minimum with carbon tetrachloride. The remarkable feature of linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) modeling is that it takes into account physical interactions. To check the accuracy of the experimental observations, they were correlated with the LSER modeling parameters, and fairly good agreement was observed between them.
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1
7


Akanksha
Swarnkar
National Institute of Technology, RAIPUR.
National Institute of Technology, RAIPUR.
India
akanksha.swarnkar@yahoo.com


Amit
Keshav
National Institute of Technology
National Institute of Technology
India
dr.amitkeshav@gmail.com


Anupam Bala
Soni
National Institute of Technology
National Institute of Technology
India
absoni.chem@nitrr.ac.in
Methacrylic acid
extractant
diluent
distribution coefficient
modeling
[[1]. S.H. Pyo, T. Dishisha, S. Dayankac, J. Gerelsaikhan, S. Lundmark, N. Rehnberg, R. HattiKaul, A new route for the synthesis of methacrylic acid from 2methyl1,3propanediol by integrating biotransformation and catalytic dehydration, Green Chemistry, 14,1942–1948, (2012). ##[2]. P. Rajagopalan, M. Kuhnle, M. Polyakov, K. Muller, W. Arlt, D. Kruse, A. Bruckner&U. Bentrup U, Methacrylic acid by carboxylation of propene with CO2 over POM catalysts—Reality or wishful thinking?,Catalysis Communications, 48, 19–23, (2014). ##[3]. S.T. Yang, S.A. White, S.T. Hsu, Extraction of carboxylic acids with tertiary and quaternary amines: effect of pH, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 30, 1335–1342, (1991). ##[4]. N. Pehlivanoglu, H. Uslu, S.I. Kirbaslar, Separation of Oxoethanoic Acid from Aqueous Solution by NMethylN,Ndioctyloctan1ammonium Chloride, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 59,936–941, (2014). ##[5]. K.L. Wasewar, D. Shende, A. Keshav, Reactive Extraction of Itaconic Acid Using Quaternary Amine Aliquat 336 in Ethyl Acetate, Toluene, Hexane, and Kerosene, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50, 1003–1011, (2011). ##[6]. A. Keshav, S. Chand, K.L. Wasewar, Recovery of propionic acid from aqueous phase by reactive extraction using quarternary amine (Aliquat 336) in various diluents, Chemical Engineering Journal, 152,95–102, (2009). ##[7]. www.microkat.gr/msdspd9099/Methacrylic acid.htm, accessed on 25th August, 2015. ##[8]. J.C. Rydberg, M. Cox, C. Musikas, G.R. Choppin, Solvent Extraction: Principles and Practice, second ed., Marcel Decker, New York, 20, (2004). ##[9]. J.M. Wardell, C.J. King, Solvent Equilibria for Extraction of Carboxylic Acids from Water, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 23(2), 144–148, (1979). ##[10]. M.J. Kamlet, M. Abboud, M.H. Abraham, R.W. Taft, Linear Solvation Energy Relationships. 23. A Comprehensive Collection of the Solvatochromic Parameters, π*, α, and β, and Some Methods for Simplifying the Generalized Solvatochromic Equation, The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 48, 2877–2887, (1983). ##[11]. I. Inci, Y.S. Asci, H. Uslu, LSER modeling of extraction of succinic acid by tridodecylamine dissolved in 2octanone and 1octanol, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 18,152–159, (2012). ##[12]. H. Uslu, Separation of Picric Acid with Trioctyl Amine (TOA)Extractant in Diluents, Separation Science and Technology 46, 1178–1183, (2011). ##[13]. A. Keshav, K. L. Wasewar, S. Chand, H. Uslu, Reactive Extraction of Propionic Acid Using Aliquat336 in 2Octanol:Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) Modeling and Kinetics Study, Chemical & Biochemical EngineeringQuarterly24(1), 67–73 (2010). ##[14]. A. Keshav, K. L. Wasewar, S. Chand, Reactive extraction of propionic acid using Aliquat 336 in MIBK: Linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) modeling and kinetics study, Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research 68, 708–713 (2009). ##[15]. H. Uslu, Reactive Extraction of Levulinic Acid Using TPA in Toluene Solution: LSER Modeling, Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies,Separation Science & Technology 43(6), 1535–1548, (2008). ##[16]. H. Uslu, Extracion of citric acid in 2octanol and 2propanol solutions containing tomac: an equilibria and a LSER model, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 25(3), 553–561, (2008). ##[17]. H. Uslu, Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) Modeling and Kinetic Studies on Propionic Acid Reactive Extraction Using Alamine 336 in a Toluene Solution, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 45, 5788–5795, (2006).##]
Analysis of Radiation Heat Transfer of a Micropolar Fluid with Variable Properties over a Stretching Sheet in the Presence of Magnetic Field
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The present study deals with the analysis of the effects of radiative heat transfer of micropolar fluid flow over a porous and stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field. The dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficient have formulated by temperaturedependent relations to obtain more exact results. The flow is supposed twodimensional, incompressible, steady and laminar and the applied magnetic field is assumed uniform. On the other hand, the velocity of the isothermal stretching sheet varies linearly with the distance from a fixed point on the sheet. The governing equations have extracted using the theory of micropolar fluid and the boundary layer approximation. Then they have been solved by similarity solution relationships, shooting method and fourthorder RungeKutta method. The results express that the presence and increase of variable thermal conductivity parameter, magnetism, radiation and variable viscosity parameter cause to decrease of heat transfer from the sheet, while increase of material parameter, Prandtl number and suction parameter increase the rate of heat transfer from the sheet. Also the values of dimensionless velocity are enhanced by increase of variable thermal conductivity parameter, material parameter and radiation parameter. On the other hand, the values of dimensionless angular velocity are completely influenced by the values of the velocity gradient.
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19


Reza
Keimanesh
M.Sc. of Mechanical Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology,Tehran, Iran
M.Sc. of Mechanical Engineering, K. N. Toosi
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
rkeimanesh@mail.kntu.ac.ir


Cyrus
Aghanajafi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology,Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K. N.
Iran
aghanajafi@kntu.ac.ir
Micropolar fluid
Radiation
Magnetic field
viscosity
Thermal conductivity
[[1]. A.C.Eringen, Simple microfluids, International Journal of Engineering Science, 2, 205217, (1964). ##[2]. M.W.Heruska, L.T.Watson, K.K. Sankara, Micropolar flow past a porous stretching sheet, Computers and Fluids, 14, 117129,(1986). ##[3]. I.A.Hassanien, A.A.Abdullah, R.S.R.Gorla, Numerical solutions for heat transfer in a micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet, Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3, 377391,(1998). ##[4]. S.N.Odda, A.M.Farhan, Chebyshev finite difference method for the effects of variable viscosity and variable thermal conductivity on heat transfer to a micropolar fluid from a nonisothermal stretching sheet with suction and blowing, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 30, 851858,(2006). ##[5]. N.A.Yacob, A.Ishak, I.Pop, Melting heat transfer in boundary layer stagnationpoint flow towards a stretching/shrinking sheet in a micropolar fluid, Computers & Fluids, 47, 1621,(2011). ##[6]. M.M.Rahman, M.A.Rahman, M.A.Samad, M.S.Alam, Heat transfer in a micropolar fluid along a nonlinear stretching sheet with a temperaturedependent viscosity and variable surface temperature, International Journal of Thermophysics, 30, 1649–1670,(2009). ##[7]. N.A.Yacob, A.Ishak, Micropolar fluid flow over a shrinking sheet, Maccanica, 47, 293299,(2012). ##[8]. A.Ishak, Y.Y.Lok, I.Pop, StagnationPoint flow over a shrinking sheet in a micropolar fluid, Chemical Engineering Communications, 197, 14171427,(2010). ##[9]. S.Nadeem, S.Abbasbandy, M.Hussain, Series solutions of boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid near the stagnation point towards a shrinking sheet, Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A, 64, 575582,(2009). ##[10]. M.M.Rahman, Convective flows of micropolar fluids from radiate isothermal porous surfaces with viscous dissipation and Joule heating, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 14, 30183030,(2009). ##[11]. A.Ishak, Thermal boundary layer flow over a stretching sheet in a micropolar fluid with radiation effect, Meccanica, 45, 367373,(2010). ##[12]. M.M.Rashidi, S.A.Mohimanian pour, S.Abbasbandy, Analytic approximate solutions for heat transfer of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium with radiation, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 16, 18741889,(2011). ##[13]. K.Bhattacharyya, S.Mukhopadhyay, G.C.Layek, I.Pop, Effects of thermal radiation on micropolar fluid flow and heat transfer over a porous shrinking sheet, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55, 29452952,(2012). ##[14]. M.A.A.Mahmoud, S.E.Waheed, Variable fluid properties and thermal radiation effects on flow and heat transfer in micropolar fluid film past moving permeable infinite flat plate with slip velocity, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 33, 663678,(2012). ##[15]. M.Hussain, M.Ashraf, S.Nadeem, M.Khan, Radiation effects on the thermal boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid towards a permeable stretching sheet, Journal of the Franklin Institute, 350, 194210,(2013). ##[16]. E.M.A.Elbashbeshy, Radiation effect on heat transfer over a stretching surface, Canadian Journal of Physics, 78, 11071112,(2000). ##[17]. M.A.A.Mahmoud, S.E.Waheed, MHD flow and heat transfer of a micropolar fluid over a nonlinear stretching surface with variable surface heat flux and heat generation,the Canadian journal of chemical engineering, 89, 14081415,(2011). ##[18]. M.A.A.Mahmoud, Thermal radiation effects on MHD flow of a micropolar fluid over a stretching surface with variable thermal conductivity, Physica A, Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 375, 401410,(2007). ##[19]. K.Das, Influence of thermophoresis and chemical reaction on MHD micropolar fluid flow with variable fluid properties, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55, 71667174,(2012). ##[20]. H.Kummerer, Similar laminar boundary layers in incompressible micropolar fluids, Rheologica Acta, 16, 261265,(1977). ##[21]. M.A.Hossain, M.K.Chowdhury, Mixed convection flow of micropolar fluid over an isothermal plate with variable spin gradient viscosity, Acta Mechanica, 131, 139151,(1998). ##[22]. K.K.Sankara, L.T.Watson, Micropolar flow past a stretching sheet, Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 36, 845853,(1985). ##[23]. T.Y.Na, I.Pop, Boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid due to a stretching wall, Archive of Applied Mechanics, 67, 229236,(1997). ##[24]. D.Philip, P.Chandra, Flow of Eringen fluid (simple microfluid) through an artery with mild stenosis, International journal of engineering science, 34, 8799,(1996). ##[25]. A.C.Eringen, Theory of micropolar fluids, Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics, 16, 118,(1965). ##[26]. M.Q.Brewster, Thermal Radiative Transfer and properties, John Wiley and Sons, (1972). ##[27]. J.Chen, C.Lian,J.D.Lee, Theory and simulation of micropolar fluid dynamics, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part N, Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanosystems, 224, 3139,(2010). ##[28]. S.K.Jena, M.N.Mathur, Similarity solutions for laminar free convection flow of a thermomicropolar fluid past a nonisothermal vertical flat plate, International Journal of Engineering Science, 19, 14311439,(1981). ##[29]. G.S.Guram, A.C.Smith, Stagnation flow of micropolar fluids with strong and weak interactions, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 6, 213233,(1980). ##[30]. G.Ahmadi, Selfsimilar solution of incompressible micropolar boundary layer flow over a semiinfinite plate, International Journal of Engineering Science, 14, 639646,(1976). ##[31]. J.Peddieson, An application of themicropolar fluid model to the calculation of turbulent shear flow, International Journal of Engineering Science, 10, 2332,(1972). ##[32]. G.Bugliarello, J.Sevilla, Velocity distribution and other characteristics of steady and pulsatile blood flow in fine glass tubes, Biorheology, 7, 85107, (1970). ##[33]. W.M.Kays, Convective heat and mass transfer,McGrawHill, New York, (1966). ##[34]. M.Arunachalam, N.R.Rajappa, Thermal boundary layer in liquid metals with variable thermal conductivity, Applied Scientific Research, 34, 179187,(1978). ##[35]. D.Knezevic, V.Savic, Mathematical modeling of changing of dynamical viscosity, as a function of temperature and pressure, of mineral oils for hydraulic systems, Facta Universitatis (Series: Mechanical Engineering), 4, 2734,(2006). ##[36]. M.Yurusoy, M.Pakdemirli, Approximate analytical solutions for the flow of a thirdgrade fluid in pipe, International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics, 37, 18795,(2002). ##[37]. J.X.Ling, A.Dybbs, Forced convection over a flat plate submersed in a porous medium: variable viscosity case, ASME, Paper 87WA/HT23, ASME winter annual meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, 1318,(1987). ##[38]. F.C.Lai, F.A.Kulacki, The effect of variable viscosity on convective heat transfer along a vertical surface in a saturated porous medium, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 33, 10281031,(1990). ##[39]. K.V.Prasad, K.Vajravelu, P.S.Datti, The effects of variable fluid properties on the hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly stretching sheet, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 49, 603610,(2010). ##[40]. L.J.Grubka, K.M.Bobba, Heat transfer characteristics of a continuous, stretching surface with variable temperature, ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, 107, 248250, (1985). ##[41]. M.E.Ali, Heat transfer characteristics of a continuous stretching surface, Heat and Mass Transfer, 29, 227234,(1994). ##C.H.Chen, Laminar mixed convection adjacent to vertical, continuously stretching sheets, Heat and Mass Transfer, 33, 471476, (1998).##]
Slip flow of an optically thin radiating nonGray couple stress fluid past a stretching sheet
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2
This paper addresses the combined effects of couple stresses, thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and slip condition on a free convective flow of a couple stress fluid induced by a vertical stretching sheet. The Cogley VincentiGilles equilibrium model is employed to include the effects of thermal radiation in the study. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear differential equations, and solved numerically using the RungeKutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and rate of heat transfer. The effects of the pertinent parameters on these quantities are examined. It is found that both the fluid velocity and temperature reduce in the presence of thermal radiation. Increasing values of the couple stress parameter thicken the momentum boundary layer. The slip parameter greatly influences the fluid flow and shear stress on the surface of the stretching sheet.
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21
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Sanatan
Das
University of Gour Banga, Malda 732 103, WB, India
University of Gour Banga, Malda 732 103,
India
tutusanasd@yahoo.co.in


Akram
Ali
University of Gour Banga, Malda 732 103, India
University of Gour Banga, Malda 732 103,
India
akramaliugb@gmail.com


Rabindra Nath Jana
Jana
Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, India
Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102,
India
jana261171@yahoo.co.in
Slip flow
couple stress fluid
stretching sheet
thermal radiation
viscous dissipation
[[1]. Stokes, V. K. (1966). Couple stresses in fluid. The Physics of Fluids 9(9), 17091715 . ##[2]. Stokes, V. K. (1984). Theories of Fluids with Microstructure: An Introduction, Springer Verlag, New York. ##[3]. Fischer, E.G. (1976). Extrusion of plastics. Wiley, New York, 1976. ##[4]. Sakiadis, B.C.(1961). Boundary layer behaviour on continuous solid surfaces: I boundary layer on a continuous flat surface. AICHE J. 7, 221–5. ##[5]. Crane, L.(1970). Flow past a stretching plate. Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 21, 6457. ##[6]. Gupta, P.S., Gupta, A.S. (1977). Heat and mass transfer on a stretching sheet with suction or blowing. Canad. J. Chem. Engg. 55, 744746. ##[7]. Rajagopal, K.R., Na, T.Y., Gupta, A.S.(1984). Flow of viscoelastic fluid due to a stretching sheet. Rheol. Acta. 23, 213215. ##[8]. Siddappa, B., Abel, M. S.(1985). Non Newtonian flow past a stretching surface, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 36, 890892. ##[9]. Andersson, H.I.(1992). MHD flow of a viscoelastic fluid past a stretching surface. Acta Mech. 95, 227230. ##[10]. Kumaran, V., Ramanaiah, G.(1996) A note on the flow over a stretching sheet. Acta Mech. 116, 229 233. ##[11]. Wang, C.Y. (2002). Flow due to a stretching boundary with partial slip. An exact solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. Chem. Eng. Sci. 57, 3745–7. ##[12]. Cortell, R. (2007). Viscous flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Appl. Math. Comput. 184 (2), 864873. ##[13]. Ariel, P.D., Hayat, T., Asghar, S. (2006). The flow of an elasticoviscous fluid past a stretching sheet with slip. Acta Mech. 187, 29–36. ##[14]. Akyildiz, F.T., Bellout, H., Vajravelu, K.(2006). Diffusion of chemically reactive species in a porous medium over a stretching sheet. J. Math. Anal, Appl. 320, 322–39. ##[15]. Wang, C.Y.(2009). Analysis of viscous flow due to a stretching sheet with surface slip and suction. Nonlinear Anal Real World Appl. 10, 375–80. ##[16]. Fang, T., Zhang, J., Yao, S. (2009). Slip MHD viscous flow over a stretching sheet An exact solution. Comm. Nonlinear Num. Simu. 14, 37313737. ##[17]. Fang, T., Zhang, J., Yao, S. (2010). Slip MHD viscous flow over a permeable shrinking sheet. Chinese Phys. Lett. 27, 124702. ##[18]. Fang, T.G., Zhang, J.(2010). Thermal boundary layers over a shrinking sheet: an analytical solution. Acta Mech. 209, 325–43. ##[19]. Arnold, J.C., Asir, A.A.,Somasundaram, S., Christopher, T. (2010). Heat transfer in a viscoelastic boundary layer flow over a stretching sheet. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 53, 1112–8. ##[20]. Shantha, G., Shanker, B. (2010). Free convection flow of a conducting couple stress fluid in a porous medium. Int. J. Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow 20, 250264. ##[21]. Srinivasacharya, D., Kaladhar, K. (2012). Mixed convection flow of couple stress fluid in a nondarcy porous medium with Soret and Dufour effects. J. Appl. Sci. Eng 15, 415 422. ##[22]. Nandeppanavar, M.M., Vajravelu, K., Abel, M.S., Siddalingappa, M. N.(2012). Second order slip flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with nonlinear Navier boundary condition. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 58, 143–50. ##[23]. Singh, G., Makinde, O.D. (2013). MHD slip flow of viscous fluid over an isothermal reactive stretching sheet. ANNALS of Faculty Engineering Hunedoara – Int. J. Engn. Tome XI, 4146. ##[24]. Hayat, T., Mustafa, M., Iqbal, Z., Alsaedi, A. (2013). Stagnationpoint flow of couple stress fluid with melting heat transfer. Appl. Math. Mech.Eng. Ed 34, 167176. ##[25]. Turkyilmazoglu, M. (2014). Exact solutions for twodimensional laminar flow over a continuously stretching or shrinking sheet in an electrically conducting quiescent couple stress fluid. Int.J. Heat Mass Transfer 72, 18. ##[26]. Siddheshwar, P.G., Sekhar, G.N., A. S. Chethan, A.S. (2014). MHD Flow and heat transfer of an exponential stretching sheet in a BoussinesqStokes suspension. J. Appl. Fluid Mech. 7(1), 169176. ##[27]. Salem, A. M., Ismail, G. Fathy, R. (2014). Hydromagnetic flow of Cu water nanofluid past a moving wedge with viscous dissipation. Chin. Phys. B 23(4), 044402. ##[28]. Zhu, J., Zheng, L., Zheng, L., Zhang, X. (2015). Secondorder slip MHD flow and heat transfer of nanofluids with thermal radiation and chemical reaction. Appl. Math. Mech.  Engl. Ed., 36(9), 11311146. ##[29]. Sheikholeslami, M., Rashidi, M.M. , Ganji, D.D. (2015). Numerical investigation of magnetic nanofluid forced convective heat transfer in existence of variable magnetic field using two phase model. J. Molecular Liquids 212, 117126. ##[30]. Sheikholeslami, M., Rashidi, M.M., Ganji, D.D. (2015). Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on forced convection heat transfer of Fe3O4 water nanofluid. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 294, 299312 ##[31]. Kandelousi, M. S. (2014). Effect of spatially variable magnetic field on ferrofluid flow and heat transfer considering constant heat flux boundary condition. The European Phys. J. Plus, 129 248. ##[32]. Sheikholeslami, M., Ganji, D.D.(2015). Nanofluid flow and heat transfer between parallel plates considering Brownian motion using DTM. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 283, 651663. ##[33]. Sheikholeslamia, M., Ganji, D. D., Javed, M. Y., Ellahi, R. (2015). Effect of thermal radiation on magnetohydrodynamics nanofluid flow and heat transfer by means of two phase model. J. Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 374, 3643. ##[34]. Sheikholeslami, M., Vajravelu, K., Rashidi, M. M. (2016). Forced convection heat transfer in a semi annulus under the influence of a variable magnetic field. Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 92, 339348 ##[35]. A.C. Cogley, W.C. Vincentine, S.E. Gilles, A differential approximation for radiative transfer in a nongray gas near equilibrium, AIAA Journal 6 (1968) 551555. ##[36]. R. Grief, I. S. Habib, J. C. Lin, Laminar convection of a radiating gas in a vertical channel, J. Fluid Mech. 46 (1970) 513520. ##[37]. T. Y. Na, Computational Method in Engineering Boundary Value Problems. Academic Press, New York, 197##]
Effects of Some ThermoPhysical Parameters on Free Convective Heat and Mass Transfer over Vertical Stretching Surface at Absolute Zero
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Effects of some thermophysical parameters on free convective heat and mass transfer over a vertical stretching surface at lowest level of heat energy in the presence of suction is investigated. The viscosity of the fluid is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature and thermal conductivity is assumed constant. A similarity transformation is applied to reduce the governing equations into a coupled ordinary differential equations corresponding to the momentum, energy and concentration equations. These equations along with the boundary conditions were also solved numerically using shooting method along with RungeKutta Gill method. The effects of thermophysical parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are shown graphically. It is found that with an increase in the value of temperaturedependent fluid viscosity parameter, the velocity increases while the temperature and concentration decreases across the flow region. Dufour, Soret, FrankKamenetskii, Prandtl and Schmidt number activation energy also have effect. Numerical data for the local skinfriction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number have been tabulated for various values of certain parameter conditions.
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31
46


Koriko
Olubode
Federal University Of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Federal University Of Technology, Akure,
Nigeria
okkoriko@futa.edu.ng


Omowaye
John
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Federal University of Technology, Akure,
Nigeria
ajomowaye@futa.edu.ng


Animasaun
Lare
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Federal University of Technology, Akure,
Nigeria
anizakph2007@gmail.com
Free convection
Newtonian fluid
Variable fluid viscosity
Surface at Absolute zero
Dufour and Soret
[[1]. H. Blasius, “Grenzschichten in Fl ssigkeiten mit kleiner Reibung,” Z.Math.Phys, 56, (1908) pp. 137. ##[2]. P. Loganathan and P. P. Arasu, “Lie Group Analysis for the Effects of Variable Fluid Viscosity and Thermal Radiation on Free Convective Heat and Mass Transfer with Variable Stream Condition,” Scientific Research Journal, 2, (2010) pp. 625634. ##[3]. B.C. Sakiadis, “Boundary Layer Behavior on Continuous Solid Surfaces. I:Boundary Layer Equations for twodimensional and Axisymmetric flow,” AIChE Journal, 7, (1961) pp. 26–28. ##[4]. B.C. Sakiadis, “Boundary layer Behaviour on Continuous Solid Surfaces. II:Boundary Layer Behaviour on continuous flat surfaces,” AIChE Journal, 7, (1961) pp. 221–225. ##[5]. L.J. Crane, “Flow Past a Stretching Plate,” Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 21, 4, (1970) pp. 645–647. ##[6]. K. Bhattacharyya, “Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer over an Exponentially Shrinking Sheet,” Chin. Phys. Lett., 28, (2011) pp. 074701. ##[7]. J. Fourier, “The Analytical Theory of Heat,” Dover Publications, Inc., New York, (1995). ##[8]. A. Fick, “Ueber Diffusion,” Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 94, (1855) pp. 59–86. ##[9]. E.R.G. Eckert and R. M. Drake, “Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer,” McGrawHill, New York, (1959). ##[10]. M.S. Alam, M. Ferdows , M. A. Maleque and M. Ota, “Dufour And Soret Effects On Steady Free Convection And Mass Transfer Flow past a SemiInfinite Vertical Porous Plate In A Porous Medium”, Int. J. of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 11, (2006) pp. 535545. ##[11]. S.S. Motsa and I.L. Animasaun, “A new numerical investigation of some thermophysical properties on unsteady MHD nonDarcian flow past an impulsively started vertical surface”, Thermal Science, 19 Suppl. 1, (2015) pp S249 – S258. ##[12]. A.M. Salem and M.A. ElAziz, “Effect of Hall currents and chemical reaction on hydromagnetic flow of a stretching vertical surface with internal heat generation/absorption,” Applied Mathematical Modeling, 32 , (2008) pp. 1236–1254. ##[13]. J.C. Crepeau and R. Clarksean, “Similarity solutions of natural convection with internal heat generation,” J. Heat Transfer, 119, (1997) pp. 183. ##[14]. I.L. Animasaun, “Dynamics of Unsteady MHD Convective Flow with Thermophoresis of Particles and Variable ThermoPhysical Properties past a Vertical Surface Moving through Binary Mixture”, Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 5, (2015) pp 106 – 120. ##[15]. I.L. Animasaun, “Casson Fluid Flow of Variable Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity alongExponentially Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Thermally Stratified Mediumwith Exponentially Heat Generation”, Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Research, 2 (2015)pp. 6378. ##[16]. D.A. “FrankKamenetskii, Diffusion and Heat Transfer in Chemical Kinetics,” Plenum Press, New York, (1969). ##[17]. O.K. Koriko and A. J. Omowaye, “Numerical Solution For Kamenetskii and Activation Energy Parameters in ReactiveDiffusive Equation with Variable OneExponential Factor,” Journal of Mathematics and Statistics, 4, (2007) pp. 233236. ##[18]. M. W. Anyakoha, “New School Physics,” 3rd Edition, Africana First Publisher Plc., (2010) pp. 3651. ##[19]. G. K. Batchelor, “An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics,” Cambridge University Press, London, (1987). ##[20]. T. G. Meyers, J. P. F. Charpin and M. S. Tshela, “The flow of a variable viscosity fluid between parallel plates with shear heating,” Applied Mathematic Modeling, 30(9), (2006) pp. 799815. ##[21]. I. L. Animasaun, “Double diffusive unsteady convective micropolar flow past a vertical porous plate moving through binary mixture using modified Boussinesq approximation”, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 7 (2016) pp. 755 – 765. doi: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.06.010 ##[22]. S. Mukhopadhyay, “Effects of Radiation and Variable Fluid Viscosity on Flow and Heat Transfer along a Symmetric Wedge,” Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 2, (2009) pp. 2934. ##[23]. T.Y. Na, “Computational Methods in Engineering Boundary Value Problems,” Academic Press, New York, (1979). ##[24]. S. Gill, “A Process for the StepbyStep Integration of Differential Equations in an Automatic Digital Computing Machine,” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 47, (1951) pp. 96108. ##[25]. B. A. Finlayson, “Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical Engineering,” McGrawHill, New York, (1980). ##[26]. J. D. Hoffman, “Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists,” McGrawHill, New York, (1992). ##[27]. G. Singh, P. R. Sharma, A. J. Chamkha, “Effect of volumetric Heat generation/Absorption on Mixed Convection Stagnation Point Flow on an Isothermal Vertical Plate in Porous Media,” 2, (2010) pp. 59 – 71. ##[28]. N. Sandeep, O. K. Koriko, I. L. Animasaun, “Modified kinematic viscosity model for 3DCassonfluidflow withinboundary layer formed on a surface at absolute zero,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, 221, (2016) pp. 1197 – 1206. ##[29]. I. L. Animasaun, “Melting heat and mass transfer in stagnation point micropolar fluid flow of temperature dependent fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity at constant vortex viscosity,” Journal of the Egyptian Mathematical Society, inpress. (2016) 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joems.2016.06.007 ##A. J. Omowaye and I. L. Animasaun, “UpperConvected Maxwell Fluid Flow with VariableThermoPhysical Properties over a Melting SurfaceSituated in Hot Environment Subject to ThermalStratification,” Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 9(4) (2016) pp. 17771790##]
NonFourier heat conduction equation in a sphere; comparison of variational method and inverse Laplace transformation with exact solution
2
2
Small scale thermal devices, such as micro heater, have led researchers to consider more accurate models of heat in thermal systems. Moreover, biological applications of heat transfer such as simulation of temperature field in laser surgery is another pathway which urges us to reexamine thermal systems with modern ones. NonFourier heat transfer overcomes some shortcomings of Fourier heat transfer, when small scale systems as considered or nonhomogeneous materials are under study. In this paper, the hyperbolic heat conduction problem in a sphere is solved by three approaches.1. Finding the exact solution by using the method of separation of variables2. Finding two approximate solutions by using the Laplace transformation and thena. applying the variational method for finding the Laplace inverseb. finding the solution of the problem in Laplace domain and using an asymptotic series to evaluate the solution for small values of timesVarious orders for the variational method are considered and compared against analytical solution. Since the two latter methods can be used in nonlinear problems such as those include radiation heat loss, the approximate solutions can be useful addition in the field of thermal analysis of nonFourier problems.
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Mohammad Sadegh
Motaghedi Barforoush
Semnan University
Semnan University
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
ms.motaghedi@yahoo.com


Syfolah
Saedodin
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
s_sadodin@semnan.ac.ir
NonFourier heat conduction
variational formulation
Laplace transformation
separation of variables
spherical coordinate
[[1] Bergman TL, Lavine AS, Incropera FP, DeWitt DP. Introduction to Heat Transfer. 6th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 2011. ##[2] Torabi M, Zhang K. Multidimensional dualphaselag heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates: Analytical and numerical solutions. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2014;78:960–6. ##[3] Tzou DY. Macro to Microscale Heat Transfer: The Lagging Behavior. Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis; 1997. ##[4] Shirmohammadi R, Moosaie A. NonFourier heat conduction in a hollow sphere with periodic surface heat flux. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 2009;36:827–33. ##[5] C. Cattaneo. Sur une forme de l’equation de la chaleur eliminant le paradoxe d’une propagation instantanée (in French). Comptes Rendus l’Académie Des Sci 1958;247:431–3. ##[6] P. Vernotte. Les paradoxes de la théorie continue de l’equation de la chaleur (in French). Comptes Rendus l’Académie Des Sci 1958;246:3154–5. ##[7] Liu H, Bussmann M, Mostaghimi J. A comparison of hyperbolic and parabolic models of phase change of a pure metal. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2009;52:1177–84. ##[8] Mitra K, Kumar S, Vedavarz A, Moallemi MK. Experimental evidence of hyperbolic heat conduction in processed meat. J Heat Transfer 1995;117:568–73. ##[9] Kaminski W. Hyperbolic heat conduction equation for materials with a nonhomogeneous inner structure. J Heat Transfer 1995;112:555–60. ##[10] Yilbas BS, AlDweik AY, Bin Mansour S. Analytical solution of hyperbolic heat conduction equation in relation to laser shortpulse heating. Phys B Condens Matter 2011;406:1550–5. ##[11] Lam TT, Fong E. Application of solution structure theorems to Cattaneo–Vernotte heat conduction equation with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. Heat Mass Transf 2012;49:509–19. ##[12] Lee HL, Chang WJ, Wu SC, Yang YC. An inverse problem in estimating the base heat flux of an annular fin based on the hyperbolic model of heat conduction. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 2013;44:31–7. ##[13] Kundu B, Lee KS. A nonFourier analysis for transmitting heat in fins with internal heat generation. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2013;64:1153–62. ##[14] Torabi M, Saedodin S. Analytical and numerical solutions of hyperbolic heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates. J Thermophys Heat Transf 2011;25:239–53. ##[15] Quintanilla R. Some solutions for a family of exact phaselag heat conduction problems. Mech Res Commun 2011;38:355–60. ##[16] Saedodin S, Yaghoobi H, Torabi M. Application of the variational iteration method to nonlinear nonFourier conduction heat transfer equation with variable coefficient. Heat Transf  Asian Res 2011;40:513–23. ##[17] Torabi M, Yaghoobi H, Saedodin S. Assessment of homotopy perturbation method in nonlinear convectiveradiative nonFourier conduction heat transfer equation with variable coefficient. Therm Sci 2011;15:263–74. ##[18] Saleh A, AlNimr MA. Variational formulation of hyperbolic heat conduction problems applying Laplace transform technique. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 2008;35:204–14. ##[19] He JH. Variational approach for nonlinear oscillators. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 2007;34:1430–9. ##[20] Arpaci VS, Vest CM. Variational formulation of transformed diffusion problems. ASMEAIChE Transf. Conf. Exhib., Seattle, Washington: 1967. ##[21] Hahn DW, Özişik MN. Heat Conduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012. ##[22] Kreyszig E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. 10th editi. Wiley; 2011.##]
An experimental investigation of performance of a 3D solar conical collector at different flow rates
2
2
The shape of a solar collector is an important factor in solartothermal energy conversion. Conical shape is one of the stationary and symmetric shapes that can be employed as a solar water heater. Flow rate of working fluid on the solar collector has an important effect on the efficiency of the collector. The present study is an experimentally investigated of the performance of the solar conical collector with 1m2 of absorber area at different volumetric flow rates. Water was used as the working fluid with the volumetric flow rate between 0.352.8 lit/min and the experiment was held in the ASHRAE standard conditions. The results demonstrated that the efficiency of the conical collector is increased by increasing the flow rate of the working fluid; in addition, the difference between inlet and outlet temperatures is decreased. The maximum recorded outlettemperature of the collector during the experimental tests was 77.1 0 C and the maximum value of thermal efficiency was about 60%.
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66


Aminreza
Noghrehabadi
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Faculty
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
noghrehabadi@scu.ac.ir


Ebrahim
Hajidavalloo
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Faculty
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
hajidae@scu.ac.ir


Mojtaba
Moravej
Azad Street . No#35 Behbahan, Iran
Azad Street . No#35 Behbahan, Iran
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
moravej60@pnu.ac.ir
solar conical collector
symmetric collector
different flow rate
collector efficiency
Experimental investigation
[[1]. M. Esen, H. Esen, “Experimental investigation of a twophase closed thermo syphon solar water heater”, Solar Energy, 79 (2005) 459468. ##[2]. T. Yousefi, E. Shojaeizadeh, F. Veysi, S. Zinadini, “An experimental investigation on the effect of Al2O3H2O nanofluid on the efficiency of flat plate solar collector”, Renewable Energy, 39 (2012) 293298. ##[3]. Z. Chen, S. Furbo, B. Perers, J. Fan, J., Andersen, “Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates”, Energy Procedia, 30 (2012) 6572. ##[4]. S. Kalogirou, “Prediction of flat plate collector performance parameters using artificial neural networks”, Solar Energy, 80 (2006) 248259. ##[5]. S. Kalogirou, “Solar thermal collectors and applications”, Progress in energy and combustion science, 30 (2004) 231295. ##[6]. Y. Tian, C. Y. Zhao, “A review of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications”, Applied Energy, 104 (2013) 538553. ##[7]. W.F. Bogaerts, C.M. Lampert, “Materials for photo thermal solarenergy conversion”, Journal of Materials Science, 18 (1983) 28472875. ##[8]. Y. Tripanagnostopouios, M. Souliotis, T. Nousia, “Solar collectors with colored”, Solar Energy, 68 (2000) 3435. ##[9]. Z. Orel, M. Gunde, M. Hutchinc, “Spectrally selective solar absorbers in different Nonblack colours”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 85 (2005) 4150. ##[10]. D. J. Close, “Solar air heaters for low and moderate temperature applications”, Solar Energy, 7 (1963) 11724. ##[11]. B. Parker, M. Lindley, D. Colliver, W. Murphy, “Thermal performance of three solar air heaters”, Solar Energy, 51 (1993) 46779. ##[12]. R. Bertocchi, J. Karni, A. Kribus, ‘‘Experimental evaluation of a nonisothermal high temperature solar particle receiver’’, Energy, 29 (2004) 687700. ##[13]. M.S. Bohn, K.Y. Wang, “Experiments and analysis on the molten Salt direct absorption receiver concept”, Journal of solar energy engineering, 110 (1988) 4551. ##[14]. T. Fend, R. Pitzpaal, O. Reutter, J. Bauer, B. Hoffschmid, “Two novel highporosity materials as volumetric receivers for concentrated solar radiation”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 84 (2004) 291304. ## [15]. S.A. Zamzamian, M. KeyanpourRad, M. KianiNeyestani, M.T. JamalAbad, “An experimental study on the effect of Cusynthesized/EG nanofluid on the efficiency of flatplate solar collectors”, Renewable Energy, 71 (2014) 658664. ##[16]. M.T. JamalAbad, A. Zamzamian, E. Imani, M. Mansouri, “Experimental study of the performance of a flatplate collector using Cu–water nanofluids”, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 27 (2013) 756760. ##[17]. H. Mousazaeh, “A review of principal and suntracking methods for maximizing solar systems output”, Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 13 (2009) 18001818. ##[18]. B. Samanta, K. R. AI Balushi., “Estimation of incident radiation on a novel spherical solar collector”, Renewable Energy, 14 (1998) 241247. ## [19]. I. Pelece, I. Ziemelis, U. Iljins, “Surface temperature distribution and energy gain from semispherical solar collector”, Proceeding of World Renewable Energy Congress, Linkoping, Sweden, (2011) 39133920. ##[20]. N. Kumar, T. Chavda, H.N. Mistry, “A truncated pyramid non tracking type multipurpose solar cooker/hot water system”, Applied Energy, 87 (2010) 471477. ##[21]. I. Pelece, I. Ziemelis, ‘‘Water heating effectiveness of semispherical solar collector’’, Proceeding of the International Scientific Conference of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, Jelgava, Latvia, 2012. ##[22]. K. Goudarzi, S.K. Asadi Yousefabad, E. Shojaeizadeh, A. Hajipour, “Experimental investigation of thermal performance in an advanced solar collector with spiral tube”, International Journal of EngineeringTransactions A: Basics, 27 (2013) 1149. ##[23]. S.F. Ranjbar, M.H. Seyyedvalilu, “The effect of Geometrical parameters on heat transfer coefficient in helical double tube exchangers”, Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Research (JHMTR), 1 (2014) 7582. ##[24]. A.M. Do Ango, M. Medale, C. Abid, “Optimization of the design of a polymer flat plate solar collector”, Solar Energy, 87 (2013) 6475. ## [25]. C. Cristofari, G. Notton, P. Poggi, A. Louche, “Modelling and performance of a copolymer solar water heating collector”, Solar Energy, 72 (2002) 99112. ##[26]. ASHRAE Standard 9386, Methods of testing and determine the thermal performance of solar collectors, ASHRAE, Atlanta, 2003. ##[27]. J.A. Duffie, W.A. Beckman, “Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes”, fourth ed., Wiley, New York, 2013. ##[28]. D. Rojas, J. Beermann, S.A. Klein, D.T. Reindl, “Thermal performance testing of flat plate collectors”, Solar Energy, 82 (2008) 746757. ##[29]. F.M. White, ‘‘Fluid Mechanics’’, fifth ed., McGrowHill Book Company, Boston, 2003. ##[30]. M. Kahani, S. Zeinali Heris, S. M. Mousavi, ‘‘Effects of curvature ratio and coil pitch spacing on heat transfer performance of Al2O3/water nanofluid laminar flow through helical coils’’, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 34 (2013) 17041712. ##[31]. M.A. Alim, Z. Abdin, R. Saidur, A. Hepbasli, M.A. Khairul, N.A. Rahim, “Analyses of entropy generation and pressure drop for a conventional flat plate solar collector using different types of metal oxide nanofluids”, Energy and Building, 66 (2013) 289296. ##[32]. R. B. Abernethy, R. P. Benedict, R. B. Dowdell, “ASME measurement uncertainty”, ASME paper,1983, 83WA/FM3. ##[33]. J. Ma, W. Sun, J. Ji, Y. Zhang, A. Zhang, W. Fan, “Experimental and theoretical study of the efficiency of a dualfunction solar collector”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 31 (2011) 17511756. ##[34]. S.S. Meibodi, A. Kianifar, H. Niazmand, O. Mahian, S. Wongwises, “Experimental investigation on the thermal efficiency and performance characteristics of a flat plate solar collector using SiO 2/EG–water nanofluids”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 65 (2015) 7175. ##[35]. H.K. Gupta, G.D. Agrawal, J. Mathur, “Investigation for effect of Al2O3H2O nanofluid flow rate on the efficiency of direct absorption solar collector”, Solar Energy, 118 (2015) 390396. ##[36]. G.H. Ko, K. Heo, K. Lee, D.S. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Sohn, M. Choi, “An experimental study on the pressure drop of nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes in a horizontal tube”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 50 (2007) 47494753.##]
ThermalEconomic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger by using a new MultiObjective optimization method
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2
Many studies are performed by researchers about Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger but the MultiObjective Big BangBig Crunch algorithm (MOBBA) technique has never been used in such studies. This paper presents application of ThermalEconomic MultiObjective Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using MOBBA. For optimal design of a shell and tube heat exchanger, it was first thermally modeled using eNTU method while BellDelaware procedure was applied to estimate its shell side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. MOBBA method was applied to obtain the maximum effectiveness (heat recovery) and the minimum total cost as two objective functions. The results of optimal designs were a set of multiple optimum solutions, called ‘Pareto optimal solutions'. In order to show the accuracy of the algorithm, a comparison is made with the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII) and MOBBA which are developed for the same problem.
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76


Mohammad Sadegh
Valipour
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, P.O. Box 3513119111, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran
msvalipour@semnan.ac.ir


Mojtaba
Biglari
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, P.O. Box 3513119111, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
mbiglar@semnan.ac.ir


Ehsanolah
Assareh
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, P.O. Box 3513119111, Semnan, Iran.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran(Islamic Republic of Iran)
ehsanolah.assareh@gmail.com
Shell and tube heat exchanger
MultiObjective Big BangBig Crunch algorithm (MOBBA)
NonDominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGAII)
Effectiveness
Total cost
[[1] G.F.Hewitt, editor. Heat exchanger design handbook. New York: Begell House; (1998). ##[2] R.K. Shah, Bell KJ. The CRC handbook of thermal engineering. CRC Press; (2000). ##[3] V. Rao, V. Patel, Multiobjective optimization of heat exchangers using a modified teachinglearningbased optimization algorithm, Applied Mathematical Modeling, 37(3), 11471162, (2013). ##[4] Min Zhao , Yanzhong Li,An effective layer pattern optimization model for multistream platefin heat exchanger using genetic algorithm, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 60, 480–489, (2013). ##[5] Suxin Qian, Long Huang, Vikrant Aute, Yunho Hwang, ReinhardRadermacher, Applicability of entransy dissipation based thermal resistance for design optimization of twophase heat exchangers. Applied Thermal Engineering, 55, (1), 140–148, (2013). ##[6] KhaledSaleh, Omar Abdelaziz, Vikrant Aute, ReinhardRadermacher, ShapourAzarm, Approximation assisted optimization of headers for new generation of aircooled heat exchangers. Applied Thermal Engineering, 61(2), 817–824, (2013). ##[7] Amin Hadidi, Ali Nazari, Design and economic optimization of shellandtube heat exchangers using biogeographybased (BBO) algorithm. Applied Thermal Engineering, 51(1), 1263–1272, (2013). ##[8] Salim Fettaka, Jules Thibault, Yash Gupta. Design of shellandtube heat exchangers using multiobjective optimization. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 60, 343–354, (2013). ##[9] Bhargava Krishna Sreepathi, G.P. Rangaiah, Improved heat exchanger network retrofitting using exchanger reassignment strategies and multiobjective optimization. Energy Available online 24 February 2014 In Press, Corrected Proof. ##[10] Viviani C. Onishi, Mauro A.S.S. Ravagnani, José A. Caballero, Mathematical programming model for heat exchanger design through optimization of partial objectives, Energy Conversion and Management, 74, 60–69, (2013) ##[11] JiangfengGuo, XiulanHuai , Xunfeng Li, Jun Cai, Yongwei Wang. Multiobjective optimization of heat exchanger based on entransy dissipation theory in an irreversible Brayton cycle system. Energy, 63, 95–102, (2013). ##[12] R. VenkataRao ,Vivek Patel, Multiobjective optimization of heat exchangers using a modified teachinglearningbased optimization algorithm. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 37(3), 1147–1162, (2013). ##[13] Ming Pan, Igor Bulatov, Robin Smith, JinKuk Kim, Optimisation for the retrofit of large scale heat exchanger networks with different intensified heat transfer techniques. Applied Thermal Engineering, 53( 2) , 373–386, (2013). ##[14] Juan I. Manassaldi , Nicolás J. Scenna, Sergio F. Mussati, Optimization mathematical model for the detailed design of air cooled heat exchangers. Energy, 64, 734–746, (2014) ##[15] Vivek Patel, Vimal Savsani, Optimization of a platefin heat exchanger design through an improved multiobjective teachinglearning based optimization (MOITLBO) algorithm. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Available online 11 February 2014 In Press, Accepted Manuscript. ##[16] L.H. Costa, M. Queiroz, Design optimization of shellandtube heat exchangers, Applied Thermal Engineering, 28, 17981805,(2008). ##[17] A. Caputo, P. Pelagagge, P. Salini, Heat exchanger design based on economic optimization, Applied Thermal Engineering, 28(10), 1151–1159, (2008). ##[18] M. Fesanghary, E. Damangir, I. Soleimani, Design optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers using global sensitivity analysis and harmony search algorithm, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, 1026–1031, (2009). ##[19] R. Hilbert, G. Janiga, R. Baron, D.Venin, Multiobjective shape optimization of a heat exchanger using parallel genetic algorithms, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,49(15–16), 2567–2577, (2006). ##[20] S. Sanaye, H. Hajabdollahi, Multiobjective optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers, Applied Thermal Engineering, 30(14–15), 1937–1945,(2010). ##[21] J. PonceOrtega, M. SernaGonzález, A. JiménezGutiérrez, Use of genetic algorithms for the optimal design of shellandtube heat exchangers, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29(2–3), 203–209,(2009). ##[22] Jie Yang, SunRyung Oh, Wei Liu,Optimization of shellandtube heat exchangers using a general design approach motivated by constructal theory.International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,Volume 77, October 2014, Pages 1144–1154. ##[23] DaniëlWalraven, Ben Laenen, William D’haeseleer,Optimum configuration of shellandtube heat exchangers for the use in lowtemperature organic Rankine cycles.Energy Conversion and Management. Volume 83, July 2014, Pages 177–187. ##[24] Jie Yang, Aiwu Fan, Wei Liu, Anthony M. Jacobi.Optimization of shellandtube heat exchangers conforming to TEMA standards with designs motivated by constructal theory.Energy Conversion and Management.Volume 78, February 2014, Pages 468–476. ##[25] Mohsen Amini, MajidBazargan.Two objective optimization in shellandtube heat exchangers using genetic algorithm.Applied Thermal Engineering.Volume 69, Issues 1–2, August 2014, Pages 278–285. ##[26] R.K. Shah, P.Sekulic, Fundamental of Heat Exchanger Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, (2003). ##[27] E. Mehdipour, O. Haddad, M. Tabari, M. Mari. Extraction of decision alternatives in construction management projects: Application and adaptation of NSGAII and MOPSO, Expert Systems with Applications, 39(3), (2012). ##[28] D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning, Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, (1989). ##[29] Osman K. Erol, Ibrahim Eksin,A new optimization method: Big Bang–Big Crunch, Advances in Engineering Software, 37( 2), February 2006, Pages 106–111. ##[30] H. Tang , J. Zhou , S. Xue , L. Xie, Big BangBig Crunch optimization for parameter estimation in structural systems, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 24, 2888–2897, (2010).##]